Further reading

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WSPA

Akhtar, N. (2006). Human–sloth bear conflict: a threat to sloth bear conservation. IBA News 15(4):15-17.

Alt, G. L., Matula Jr., G. J., Alt, F. W. and Lindzey, J. S. (1977). Movements of translocated nuisance black bears of northeastern Pennsylvania. Trans. of the Northeastern Fish and Wildl.Conf. 34: 119-126.

Ambrose, J.T. and Sanders, O.T. (1978). Magnitude of black bear depredation on apiaries in North Carolina. Proc. Eastern Black Bear Workshop 4:167-179.

Amstrup, S. (2006). The future for polar bears in a declining sea ice environment: what do we know? Int. Bear News 15(4):8-11.

Amstrup, S.C. and Beecham, J. (1976). Activity patterns of radio-collared black bears in Idaho. J. Wildl. Manage. 40:340-348.

Andelt, W.F. (1999). Relative effectiveness of guarding-dog breeds to deter predation on domestic sheep in Colorado. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27:706-714.

Andelt, W.F. (2001). Livestock guard dogs, llamas and donkeys. Colorado State University, Cooperative Extension Service, Publication 1.218, 7pp.

Andelt, W.F. (2004). Use of livestock guarding animals to reduce predation on livestock. Sheep and Goat Res. J. 19:72-75.

Anderson Jr., C.J., Ternent, M.A. and Moody, D.S. (2002). Grizzly bear-cattle interactions on two grazing allotments in northwest Wyoming. Ursus 13:153-162.

Annis, K. and Simek, S. (2004). A Review of State Policies on Nuisance Black Bear Management. Fifteenth International Conference on Bear Research and Management. February 8-13, 2004, San Diego, California, USA. (Abstract)

Augustyn, T. (2001). An Evaluation of Grizzly Bear – Human Conflict in the Northwest Boreal Region of Alberta (1991-2000) and Potential Mitigation. Fisheries & Wildl. Manage. Div.: Resour. Status and Assess. Branch. Alberta Species at Risk Report No. 10. Calgary

Aumiller, L. D. and Matt, C. A. (1994). Management of McNeil river state game sanctuary for viewing of brown bears. Int. Conf. on Bear Res. and Manage. 9:51-61.

Ayres, L.A., Chow, L.S., and Graber, D.M. (1986). Black bear activity patterns and human induced modifications in Sequoia National Park. Int. Conf. Bear Res. and Manage. 6:151-154.

Ballard, W.B. (1992). Bear predation on moose: a review of recent North American studies and their management implications. Alces Suppl. 1:162-176.

Ballard, W.B. (1994). Effects of black bear predation on caribou – a review. Alces 30:25-35.

Baptiste, M.E., Whelan, J.B., and Frary, R.B. (1979). Visitor perception of black bear problems at Shenandoah National Park. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 7:25-29.

Barber, K. R. and Lindzey, F. G. (1986). Breeding behaviour of black bears. Int. Conf. Bear Res. and Manage. 6:129-136.

Barden, M., Slate, D., Calvert, R.T. and Debow, P.W. (1995). Strategies to address human conflicts with raccoons and black bears in New Hampshire. Proc. Eastern Wildl. Damage Control Conf. 6:22-29.

BC Parks (2001). Draft Guidelines for the Aversive Conditioning of Bears. BC Parks, Parks and bear in Canada. Pages 46-50 in C. Servheen, S. Herrero, B. Peyton, editors. Bears: Status and Survey and Conservation Action Plan.

Beckmann, J. P. and Berger, J. (2003). Using black bears to test ideal-free distribution models experimentally. J. Mamm. 84(2):594-606.

Beckmann, J. P., Lackey, C.W. and Berger, J. (2004). Evaluation of deterrent techniques on altering behavior of ‘nuisance’ black bears. Wildl. Soc, Bull. 32(4):1141-1146.

Beecham, J.J. and Rohlman, J. (1994). A shadow in the forest. Idaho’s black bear. Idaho Dept. Fish and Game, Boise, and University of Idaho Press, Moscow, 245pp.

Beeman, L.E. and Pelton, M.R. (1976). Homing of black bears in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Int. Conf. Bear Res. and Manage. 3:87-95.

Bennett, K. (1996). Final Report. Revelstoke bear/human conflict education program. British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. Revelstoke, British Columbia

Black Bear Conservation Committee (1992). Black Bear Management Handbook for Louisiana, Mississippi and east Texas. First Edition. 40 pp.

Black Bear Discussion Group (27 June 2000). Utah Black Bear Management Plan. Prepared by: Black Bear Discussion Group, Utah Division of Wildlife Resources,1594 West North Temple, Salt Lake City, Utah 84114, John Kimball, Director, Publication No. 00-23

Black Bear Task Team (1998). Black Bear Management Plan. Whistler, British Columbia.

Black Bear Task Team. Unpublished. "Black Bear Management Plan, Whistler, British Columbia." July 1998. Whistler, B.C. 35 pp.

Blanchard, B.M. and Knight, R.R. (1995). Biological consequences of relocating grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem. J. Wildl. Manage. 59:560-565.

Boitani, L. (1995). Ecological and cultural diversities in the evolution of wolf-human relationships. Pages 3-12 in L.N. Carbyn, S.H. Fritts, and D.R. Seip, eds. Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world. Canadian Circumpolar Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB.

Braaten, A. (2003). Bear shepherds in the North Cascades. Int. Bear News 12(2):14-15.

Brady, J.R. and Maehr, D.S. (1982). A new method for dealing with apiary-raiding black bears. Proc. Ann. Conf. Southeaster Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies. 36:571-577.

Breitenmoser, U., Angst, C., Landry, J-M., Breitenmoser, C., Linnell, J.D.C. and Weber, J-M. (2005). Non-lethal techniques for reducing depredation. Pages 49-71 in R. Woodroofe, S. Thirgood, and A. Rabinowitz (editors) People and wildlife: Conflict or coexistence, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (1995). Conservation of grizzly bears in British Columbia: background report. Province of British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, British Columbia.

British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (1996). "Human-bear conflict in British Columbia: Draft Discussion Paper." Prepared by Sean Sharpe, Carnivore Management Specialist for B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Park Canadian Cataloguing in Publication Data. Victoria, British Columbia. 21pp.

British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Bear-Human Conflict Committee (BHCC) (September 1997). "Reducing bear conflicts: recommendations of the bear-human conflict committee." Unpublished. Victoria, B.C. 56pp.

British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection (December 2002). Bear-People Conflict Prevention Plan: for Parks and Protected Areas in British Columbia. Third Edition. Prepared by Protected Areas Conservation, Parks and Protected Areas Branch, Environmental Stewardship Division, Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Victoria, BC.

British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection (June 2003). Wildlife-Human Conflict Prevention Strategy. B.C. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. Victoria, British Columbia.

British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, Air Protection. Aversive Conditioning Committee (January 2003). Guidelines for Aversive Conditioning of Bears in British Columbia’s Parks and Protected Areas. DRAFT. 17 June 2003

British Columbia Parks (1995). Bear-People Conflict Prevention Plan. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. Conservation Services. Victoria, British Columbia.

Bromley, M., editor. Bear-people conflicts: proceedings of a symposium on management strategies. Northwest Territories Department of Renewable Resources, Yellowknife, N.W.T. 246pp.

Bunnell, F. L., and Tait, D. E. N. (1981). Population dynamics of bears--implications. Pages 75-98 in C. W. F. and T. D. Smith., ed.. Dynamics of large mammal populations. John Wiley, New York.

Bunnell, F. L., and Hamilton, T. (1983). Forage digestibility and fitness in grizzly bears. International Conference on Bear Research and Management 5:179-185.

Burke, D. (December 30, 2004). “Whistler quite bear-friendly, survey finds: But attitudes toward encounters vary from ‘delighted’ to ‘fearful’”. Whistler Question.

Burns, R. J. (1983). Micro encapsulated lithium chloride bait aversion did not stop coyote (Canis latrans) predation on sheep. J. Wildl. Manage. 47:1010-1017.

Burns, R. J., Zemlicka, D. E. and Savarie, P. J. (1996). Effectiveness of large livestock protection collars against depredating coyotes. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 24:123-127.

Calvert, R., Slate, D. and Debow, P. (1992). An integrated approach to bear damage management in New Hampshire. Proc. Eastern Black Bear Workshop 11:96-107. .

Carpenter, W.J. (1989). The Canadian Eskimo Dog: The Original Defence against the Polar Bear. Abstract Only. Page 71 in M. Bromley, ed. Bear-people conflicts: Proceedings Symp. Manage. Strategies. Northwest Territories Department of Renewable Resources, Yellowknife, N.W.T., 246pp.

Chauhan, N.P.S. (2003). Human casualties and livestock depredation by black and brown bears in the Indian Himalaya, 1989–98. Ursus 14:84–87.

Chi, D. K., and Gilbert, B. K. (1999). Habitat security for Alaskan black bears at key foraging sites: are there thresholds for human disturbance? Ursus 11:225-237.

Chi, D.K., Chester, D. and Gilbert, B.K. (1998). Effects of capture procedures on black bear activity at an Alaskan salmon stream. Ursus 10:563-569.

Ciarniello, L. M. (1996). Management plan to reduce negative human-black bear interactions: Liard River Hotsprings Provincial Park, British Columbia. MEDes thesis, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta.

Ciarniello, L. M. (1997). Reducing human-bear conflicts: solutions through better management of non-natural foods. Bear-human conflict committee: British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks.

Ciarniello, L. M. and Paczkowski, J. (2001). Parsnip grizzly bear population and habitat project: 2000 progress report. British Columbia Conservation Foundation. Prince George, British Columbia.

Claar, J. J., Karsky, R., Barber, K., Hinschbeger, M. and Jonkel, J. A. (2004). Sanitation in Bear Country: Methods, Protocols and Equipment to Minimize Bear/Human Conflicts. Fifteenth International Conference on Bear Research and Management. February 8-13, 2004, San Diego, California, USA. (Abstract)

Clark, J.D., Clapp, D.L., Smith, K.G. and Wigley, T.B. (1991). Black bear damage and landowner attitudes toward bears in Arkansas. Proc. Ann. Conf. Southeastern Assoc. Fish and Wildlife Agencies 45:208-217.

Clark, J.D., Dobey, S., Masters, D.V., Sheick, B.K., Pelton, M.R. and Sunquist, M.E. (2005). Black bears and bee yard depredation at Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia. Ursus 16(2):234-244.

Clark, J.E., van Manen, F. T. and Pelton, M. R. (2002). Correlates of success for on-site releases of nuisance black bears in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 30:104-111.

Clark, J.E., van Manen, F.T. and Pelton, M.R. (2003). Survival of nuisance American black bears released on-site in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Ursus 14(2):210-214.

Clark, J.D., Huber, D., and Servheen, C. (2002). Bear Reintroductions: Lessons and Challenges. Ursus 13:335-345.

Clark, J. D., Dobey, S., Masters, D.V., Sheick, B.K., Pelton, M.R. and Sunquist, M.E. (2004). Black bears and beeyard depredation at Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia. Fifteenth International Conference on Bear Research and Management. February 8-13, 2004, San Diego, California, USA. (Abstract)

Clark, T.W., Mattson, D.J., Reading, R.P. and Miller, B.J. (2001). Interdisciplinary problem solving in carnivore conservation: an introduction. Pages 223 – 240 in J.L. Gittleman, S.M. Funk, D. Macdonald, and R.D. Wayne editors. Carnivore conservation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK

Clarkson, P. (1987). Bear deterrent study: Cape Churchill, Manitoba, 1985. Yellowknife Government of the Northwest Territories, Dept. of Renewable Resources. No. 66, 57 pp.

Clarkson, P.L. (1989). The twelve gauge shotgun: a bear deterrent and protection system. Pages 55-60 in M. Bromley (ed.) Bear-people conflicts: proceedings of a symposium on management strategies. Northwest Territories Department of Renewable Resources, Yellowknife, N.W.T., 246pp.

Clarkson, P.L. (1993). The Ecology and management of problem black bears at Norman Wells, NWT, 1985-88. Yellowknife Northwest Territories Resources, Wildlife & Economic Development. No. 70, 32 pp

Cole, G. F. (1974). Management involving grizzly bears and humans in Yellowstone National Park, 1970-73. Bioscience 24:335-338.

Colvin, T.R. (1976). Aversive conditioning black bear to honey using lithium chloride. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Game, Fish and Conservation Commissioners 29:450-453.

Comeau, A. (2003). Animal Proof Waste Handling System - The Town of Canmore Experience. Supervisor of Solid Waste Services. Town of Canmore, 100 Glacier Drive, Canmore AB. T1W 1K8. www.bearsmart.com

Comly-Gericke, L.M. and Vaughan, M.R. (1997). Survival and reproduction of translocated Virginia black bears. Int. Conf. Bear Res. and Manage. 9(2):113-117.

Conover, M.R. (1981). Evaluation of behavioural techniques to reduce wildlife damage. In: J.M Peek and P.D. Dalke, eds., Proceedings Wildlife-Livestock Relationships Symposium, April 20-22, 1981, Coeur d’Alene, Idaho. Published by Forests, Wildlife and Range Exp. Station, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho.

Consolo-Murphy, S. and Kaeding, B. (1998). Fishing Bridge: 25 years of controversy regarding grizzly bear management in Yellowstone National Park. Ursus. 10:385-393.

Coppinger, R., Lorenz, J. and Coppinger, L. (1983). Introducing livestock guarding dogs to sheep and goat producers. Proceedings of the Eastern Wildlife Damage Control Conference 1:129-135.

Cushing, B.S. (1983). Responses of polar bears to human menstrual odors. Int. Conf. Bear Res. and Manage. 5:270-274.

Dacy, G.H. (1939). Electrified fence: it controls honey-stealing bears. Gleanings in Bee Culture 67:619-621.

Dalle-Molle, J. (1984). Deterring bears from backcountry campsites: tests in Denali National Park in 1984. Proceedings First Alaska Interagency Bear Biology Conference and Workshop, December 5-6, 1984, Anchorage, Alaska, National Park Service.

Dalle-Molle, J., and Vanhorn, J. (1989). Bear-people conflict management in Denali National Park, Alaska. In: Bromley, M., ed. Bear-people conflicts: Proceedings of a Symposium on Management Strategies. Yellowknife, Northwest Territories: Department of Renewable Resources. 121-128.

Dalle-Molle, J., Coffey, M.A. and Werner, H.W. (1986). Evaluation of bear-resistant food containers for backpackers. Pages 209-214 in R.C. Lucas (comp.) Proc. National Wilderness Res. Conf. Current research. U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report INT-212, 553pp.

Davenport Jr., L.B. (1953). Agricultural depredation by the black bear in Virginia. J. Wildl. Manage. 17:331-340.

Davidson, P.L., Davidson, M.W. and LeBlanc, D.J. (2003). The “tough love” approach to dealing with nuisance bears in Louisiana. Paper presented at 17th Eastern Black Bear Workshop, March 2-5, 2003, Mt. Olive, New Jersey.

Davis, H. (1996). Cannibalism by black bears in the Nimpkish Valley, British Columbia. Northwest Science 70:88-92.

Davis, H., Wellwood, D. and Ciarniello, L. (2001). “Bear Smart” Community Program: Background Report. Prepared for the Wildlife Branch, B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, B.C.

DeCalesta, D.S. (1983). Building an electric antipredator fence. Pacific Northwest Cooperative Extension Service, Publication PNW-225, 12pp.

DeBolt, B. (2000). Feasibility of using portable electric fencing to prevent damage to livestock and apiaries by bears and other predators. Pages 122-6 in C.C. Schwartz and M.A. Haroldson, editors. Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Investigations: Annual Report of the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team, 2000. U.S. Geological Survey, Bozeman, Montana, USA. http://www.nrmsc.usgs.gov/files/norock/products/IGBST/2000report.pdf

Decker, D.J. and O’Pezio, J. (1989). Consideration of bear-people conflicts in black bear management for the Catskill region of New York: application of a comprehensive management model. Pages 181-187 in M. Bromley (ed.) Bear-people conflicts: proceedings of a symposium on management strategies. Northwest Territories Department of Renewable Resources, Yellowknife, N.W.T., 246pp.

Decker, D.J., Lauber, T.B. and Siemer, W.F. (2002). Human-wildlife conflict management. A practitioner’s guide. Northeast Wildlife Damage Management Research and Outreach Cooperative, 48pp.

Derocher, A.E. and Miller, J. S. (1985). Bear Deterrent Study – Cape Churchill, Manitoba, 1984. Draft. File Rep. No. 54. Report for the Government of the Northwest Territories, Canada. 33pp.

Derr, M. (1999). If you’re a bear, these dogs will give you paws. Smithsonian 30:92-98.

Dolson, S. (2002). Whistler Human-Bear Conflicts. 2002. J.J. Whistler Bear Society. Unpublished.

Dolson, S. (2003). Annual bear complaint analysis, 2002 – 2003. Comparative analysis 1999 – 2003. J.J. Whistler Bear Society. Unpublished.

Dolson, S. (2003). Whistler Human-Bear Conflicts 2003. J.J. Whistler Bear Society. Unpublished.

Dolson, S. (2003). Whistler Statistics 1999-2002. J.J. Whistler Bear Society. Unpublished.

Dolson, S. (2004). Whistler Human-Bear Conflicts 1999-2003 Comparative Analysis. J.J. Whistler Bear Society. Unpublished.

Dolson, S. (2004). Rubber Bullets. International Bear News May 2004 vol. 13, no. 2. Pg. 27.

Dorrance, M.J. and Roy , L.D (1978). Aversive conditioning tests of black bears in beeyards failed. Proceedings of the 8th Vertebrate Pest Conference.

Dorrance, M.J. and Gilbert, B.K. (1977). Considerations in the application of aversion conditioning. In: W.B. Jackson and R.E. Marsh, eds. Test Methods for Vertebrate Pest Control and Management Materials. American Society for Testing and Materials, Special Technical Publication, pp.136-144.

Dorrance, M.J. and Gunson, J. R. (1976). An evaluation of nonlethal control techniques for problem black bears in beeyards. Alberta Fish and Wildlife Division. 13 pp.

Doughty, J. M. (1947). Electric fence for bears. Gleanings in Bee Culture. 75:406-407.

Dueck, H.A. (1990). Carnivore conservation and interagency cooperation: a proposal for the Canadian Rockies. MEDes thesis, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta.

Eberhardt, L.L. and Knight, R.R. (1996). How many grizzlies in Yellowstone? J. Wildl. Manage.60:416-21.

Egbert, A. L., and Stokes, A. W. (1976). The social behavior of brown bears on an Alaskan salmon stream. Int. Conf. Bear Res. and Manage. 3:41-56.

Egbert, A.L. (1978). The social behavior of brown bears at McNeil River, Alaska. Ph.D. thesis, Utah State University, Logan. 117 pp.

Eiler, J.H., Wathen, W.G. and Pelton, M.R. (1989). Reproduction in black bears in the southern Appalachian Mountains. J. Wildl. Manage. 53:353-360.

Ellingwood, M. (1999). Bear cultural carrying capacity: a Northeast perspective. Proc. Eastern Black Bear Workshop 15:135 (abstract only).

Elowe, K.D. and Dodge, W.E. (1989). Factors affecting black bear reproductive success and cub survival. J. Wildl. Manage. 53:962-968.

Environment Canada (1992). Bear Management Plan. Kluane National Park Reserve. Environment Canada. Canadian Parks Service. Kluane National Park Reserve. Haines Junction, Yukon.

Flowers, R.H. (1986). Supplemental feeding of black bear in tree-damaged areas of western Washington. Abstract. Animal Damage Control Service, Washington Forest Protection Association, Aberdeen, WA.

Flynn, J., Burns, W., Mertz, C.K. and Slovic, P. (1992). Trust as a determinant of food conditioning: Human and bear behavior modification in an urban framework for developing New York’s black bear management plan. New York Game and Fish Department.

Fredriksson, G. (2005). Human-sun bear conflicts in East Kalimantan Indonesia Borneo. Ursus 16(1):130-137.

Fritts, S.H. (1982). Wolf depredation on livestock in Minnesota. U.S. Department of Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Resource Publication 145, Washington, D.C.

Garner, N.P. and Vaughan, M.R. (1989). Black bear-human interactions in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Pages 155-161 in M. Bromley (ed.) Bear-people conflicts: proceedings of a symposium on management strategies. Northwest Territories Department of Renewable Resources, Yellowknife, N.W.T., 246pp.

Garshelis, D.L. (1989). Nuisance bear activity and management in Minnesota. Pages 169-180 in M. Bromley (ed.) Bear-people conflicts: proceedings of a symposium on management strategies. Northwest Territories Department of Renewable Resources, Yellowknife, N.W.T., 246pp.

Garshelis, D.L. (1994). Density-dependent population regulation of black bears. Pages 3-14 in M. Taylor (ed.) Density-dependent population regulation of black, brown, and polar bears. Int. Conf. Bear Res. and Manage. Monogr. Series No.3, 43pp.

Garshelis, D.L., Sikes, R.S., Andersen, D.E. and Birney, E.C. (1999). Landowners’ perceptions of crop damage and management practices related to black bears in east-central Minnesota. Ursus 11:219-224.

Garshelis, D.L., Gibeau, M.L. and Herrero, S. (2005). Grizzly bear demographics in and around Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country, Alberta. J. Wildl. Manage.69:277-297.

Gee, C.K. (1979). Cattle and calf losses to predators: feeder cattle enterprises in the United States. J. Range Manage. 32:152-154.

Geist, V. (2003). Hunters, “freedom of the woods” and dispersal phenotype: carnivore management for public safety. Paper presented at 17th Eastern Black Bear Workshop, March 2-5, 2003, Mt. Olive, New Jersey.

Giffiths Jr., R. E., Connolly, G. E., Burns, R. J. and Sterner, R. T. (1978). Coyotes, sheep and lithium chloride. Proc. Vertebrate Pest Conf. 8:190-196.

Gilbert, B. K. (1989). Behavioral plasticity and bear-human conflicts. Pages 1-8 in Marianne Bromley, Bear-People Conflicts: Proceedings of a Symposium on Management Strategies. . Northwest Territories Department of Natural Resources, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories.

Gilbert, B. K. (1999). Opportunities for social learning in bears. In H. O. Box and K. R. Gibson, editors. Mammalian social learning: comparative and ecological perspectives. Cambridge University Press, London.

Gilbert, B.K. and Roy, L.D. (1977). Prevention of black bear damage to beeyards using aversive conditioning. Pages 93-102 in R.L. Phillips and C.J. Jonkel (eds.) Proceedings of the 1975 Predator Symposium. University of Montana, Missoula, 268pp.

Gilbert, B.K. and Lanner, R.M. (1995). Energy, diet selection and restoration of brown bear populations. International Conference on Bear Research and Management. French Ministry of the Environment and the Natural History Museum of Grenoble, France. 9:231-240.

Gillin, C.M., Hammond, F.M. and Peterson, C.M. (1994). Evaluation of an aversive conditioning technique used on female grizzly bears in the Yellowstone Ecosystem. Int. Conf. Bear Res. and Manage. 9(1):503-512.

Gillin, C.M., Chestin, I.E., Semchenkov, P. and Claar, J. (1997). Management of bear-human conflicts using Laika dogs. Int. Conf. Bear Res. and Manage. 9(2):133-137.

Glacier National Park (1981). Bear management plan. United States Department of Interior, National Park Service, West Glacier, Montana, USA.

Gniadek, S. J. and Kendall, K.C. (1998). A summary of bear management in Glacier Bay National Park, Montana, 1960-1994. Ursus. 10:155-159.

Goldstein, I. (1991). Spectacled bear predation and feeding behavior on livestock in Venezuela. Studies on Neotr. Fauna and Envir. 26:231-235.

Goodrich, J. M. (1990). Ecology, conservation, and management of two western Great Basin black bear populations. Thesis, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, USA.

Gore, M.L. (2004). Comparison of intervention programs designed to reduce human-bear conflict: A literature review. HDRU Series No 4-04. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. http://www.dnr.cornell.edu/hdru/PUBS/HDRUReport04-4.pdf

Graf, P.L., Clarkson and Nagy, J.A. (1992). Safety in bear country: a reference manual. Revised edition (First edition 1985). Department of Renewable Resources. Government of the Northwest Territories.

Graber, D. (1982). Ecology and management of black bears in Yosemite National Park. Final report to National Park Service. 202 pp.

Gray, P. A. and Sutherland, M. (1989). A review of bear detection systems. Pages 61-67 in M. Bromley (ed.) Bear-people conflicts: proceedings of a symposium on management strategies. Northwest Territories Department of Renewable Resources, Yellowknife, N.W.T., 246pp.

Green, J.S. (1989). Donkeys for predation control. Proc. Eastern Wildl. Damage Control Conf. 4:83-86.

Green, J.S., Woodruff, R.A. and Tueller, T.T. (1984). Livestock-guarding dogs for predator control: costs, benefits, and practicality. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 12:44-50.

Green, J.S. and. Woodruff, R.A. (1989). Livestock-guarding dogs reduce depredation by bears. Pages 49-53 in M. Bromley (ed.) Bear-people conflicts: proceedings of a symposium on management strategies. Northwest Territories Department of Renewable Resources, Yellowknife, N.W.T., 246pp.

Green, J.S., Woodruff, R.A. and Wick, RP.J. (1993). Bears, Ostriches, and specialized grazing: putting guard dogs to work. Proc. 11th Great Plains Wildl. Damage Control Workshop 11:105-108.

Greene, R.J. (1982). An application of behavioral technology to the problem of nuisance bears. The Psychol. Rec. 32:501-511.

Gunson, J.R. (1977). Black bears and beehives in Alberta. Proc. Ann. Conf. Western Assoc. State Fish & Game Commissioners 57:182-191.

Gunther, K.A., Haroldson, M.A., Frey, K., Cain, S.L., Copeland, J. and Schwartz, C.C. (2004). Grizzly bear-human conflicts in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem, 1992-2000. Ursus 15(1):1022.

Gunther, K.A. (1994). Bear management in Yellowstone National Park, 1960-93. Int. Conf. Bear Res. and Manage. 9(1):549-560.

Gunther, K.A. and Hoekstra, H.E. (1998). Bear-inflicted human injuries in Yellowstone National Park, 1970-1994. Ursus 10:377-384.

Gunther, K.A., Cain, S.L., Copeland, J., Frey, K., Haroldson, M.A. and Schwartz, C.C. (2004). Grizzly bear-human conflicts in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem, 1992-2000. Ursus 15(1):10–24.

Gustavson, C.R. (1974). Taste aversion conditioning as a predator control method. PhD Thesis, Department of Psychology, University Of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT. USA.

Haas, D. (2000). Nelson Bear Aware program 2000: final report. British Columbia Conservation Foundation. Nelson, British Columbia.

Haigh, J.C. and Stenhouse, G.B. (1985). Fatal trauma caused by deterrent device for bears. J. Wildl. Dis. 21:330-331.

Hamer, D. and Herrero, S. (1987). Grizzly bear food and habitat in the front ranges of Banff National Park, Alberta. International Conference on Bear Research and Management 7:199–213.

Hansen, I. and Bakken, M. (1999). Livestock-guarding dogs in Norway: Part I. Interactions. J. Range Manage. 52:2-6.

Hastings, B.C. and Gilbert, B.K. (1984). Aversive conditioning of black bears in the backcountry of Yosemite National Park. Proceedings of the Second Conference on Sci. Res. In the National Parks. 2:294-303.

Hastings, B.C., Gilbert, B.K. and Turner, D.C. (1981). Black bear behavior and human-bear relationships at campsites in Yosemite National Park. Final report to the NPS, Rocky Mountain Reg. Tech. Rep. No. 2, Cooperative NPS Res. Studies Unit. 42 pp.

Hastings, B.C., Gilbert, B.K. and Turner, D.L. (1986). Black bear aggression in the backcountry of Yosemite National Park. Int. Conf. Bear Res. and Manage. 6:145-149.

Hastings, B.C., Gilbert, B.K. and Turner, D.L. (1989). Effects of bears eating campers’ food on human-bear interactions. Pages 15-18 in M. Bromley (ed.) Bear-people conflicts: proceedings of a symposium on management strategies. Northwest Territories Department of Renewable Resources, Yellowknife, N.W.T., 246pp.

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